Jack and the Bean Stalk – the Hollywood connection to a West Salem cannery

This article was written for the Statesman Journal and published January 2015. It is reproduced here for reference purposes.

Blue Lake Producers @ 325 Patterson Ave. West Salem.

Blue Lake Producers @ 325 Patterson Ave. West Salem. Photo credit: Bill Lucas collection

All because a great American comedian, Lou Costello, saw promotion possibilities where the publicity directors of Warner Bros. studios didn’t, a Salem industry and the city of Salem itself became national news. It was a fairytale dream come true for the owners of the Blue Lake Packers, a cannery whose humble origins began during the Great Depression with a small group of farmers. The group possessed little or no physical assets or finances, but under the vision of Oka E. Snider, a fellow farmer, the group formed the West Stayton Packing Company to grow beans to be processed at the Cleary-Hillman Packing Company which was located at 325 Patterson Ave. in West Salem. The group was quality conscious from the beginning and with the cooperation of several seed companies they became the first co-op and cannery to grow and pack “100% Stringless Blue Lake Beans.” Later beets, corn, carrots, berries and cherries were added to the list production line. Pulling themselves up by their bootstraps, the farmer’s cooperative retained control of their product by marketing on a percentage basis, keeping control of sales and the selling price. Within two years they purchased one-half of the common stock at the Cleary-Hillman Company and began setting up their own direct selling connections, then on May 25, 1938 they purchased the remaining company stock and took over the cannery, changing the name to “Blue Lake Producers, Cooperative.” They suffered a devastating setback on December 31, 1944, when the cannery burned to the ground during the height of the war effort, but re-built within the year; a tough feat with wartime shortages. In 1946, they changed their name to Blue Lake Packers, Inc. By 1952, twenty years from their initial partnership, the Blue Lake Packers board of directors decided it was time to celebrate. At their annual meeting in February of that year they designated 1952 the Jack and the Beanstalk year after their most profitable label line and decided to pursue national advertising. Little did they know that Lou Costello and Warner Bros. Studio were working on their own Jack and the Beanstalk project and would soon come calling. Paul Colwell, the Blue Lake broker for the Los Angeles area was the first to see the possibilities. He heard that Warner Bros. Studio was filming the comedy team of Abbott and Costello in a picture titled “Jack in the Bean Stalk.” Colwell pitched them an idea, why not tie-in Jack and the Beanstalk green beans? The studio was interested, but wanted a staggering price from the cannery to be involved. Colwell joked at the time that the studio not only wanted the packing company, but a congressional appropriation to boot in order to enter into the deal with Blue Lake. He walked away from the meeting and promptly forgot about it. A few months later the studio called him. Why hadn’t he been back? C’mon down they said, we’re ready to make a deal. Colwell went to the meeting. Lou Costello was there and what he had to say caused M. W. Merrill, sales manager for the packing company to fly from Salem to L.A. and they both listened to the comedian – who wasn’t being funny, just sensible. Costello had a whale of an idea. When Lou Costello learned that Jack and the Beanstalk was the name of a brand of green beans, he got such a kick out of the idea that he went to bat for the tie-in deal. But what will it cost? Colwell and Merrill wanted to know, wary after the first studio proposal. Said Costello, “Listen. It won’t cost you anything. This tie-in, with the Jack and the Beanstalk label in grocery stores and eating spots all over the country will help the picture more than the picture will help you boys.” Merrill made a unique merchandising deal with Costello and Warner Bros. Studio. As a result the cannery label appeared prominently all over the country where Blue Lake Packers’ canned goods were distributed. Special posters were made up for display in grocery stores and theaters, special merchandising displays of green bean cans were placed in theaters showing the Hollywood version of the famous tale, including the Capitol Theater in Salem. Abbott and Costello made personal appearances in a lot of newly-opening markets where Jack and the Beanstalk beans were being featured. Lou Costello personally spent more than $1000 in air express charges sending cases of Blue Lake Jack and the Beanstalk beans to 43 nationally-known radio commentators and journalist friends throughout the nation. And do you remember the giant’s breakfast in the famous tale, all the eggs that Jack had to fry for him? Well, courtesy of the National Poultry and Egg Board, 50 million Blue Lake labels went all over the nation on exactly that many cartons of eggs featuring the giant’s breakfast. For the Blue Lake Packers it was a fairytale ending to their 20th anniversary year, never to be forgotten thanks to a quality product with a label that caught the eye and tickled the funny bone of a famous comedian.

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Christmas Flood Evacuation of Salem Memorial Hospital – December 1964

This article was written for the Statesman Journal and published December 2014. It is reproduced here for reference purposes.

Salem Memorial Hospital surrounded by flood waters - December 1964.

Salem Memorial Hospital surrounded by flood water after Pringle Creek breached its banks. WHC 2012.49.124

Monday December 21, 1964, Salem residents watched anxiously as the Willamette River began to rise at the rate of 3 inches per hour following a rainstorm the National Weather Service in Portland dubbed, “the most severe rainstorm to ever occur over western Oregon since the late 1870s.” The Pineapple Express storm had brought persistent heavy warm rain over the top of snow still left on the ground from the previous week. Basements in the city, including that of Salem Memorial Hospital, were flooding and storm drains were clogged with chunks of ice and snow. Shelton Ditch and Mill Creek overflowed their banks and control dams were working at full capacity. By Tuesday, Pringle Creek threatened to breach the dike around the hospital. Oregon Correctional Institution inmates, Regional Parks Department employees and hospital staff placed sandbags at the north and south sides. The inmates continued to work throughout the night pumping and sandbagging until the creek overflowed and water rushed in creating a lake around the hospital and filling the basement with 7 feet of water. At 7:30 a.m. Wednesday morning, December 23rd, the decision was made to evacuate the hospital’s patients based on a number of factors including: loss of power, threat of fire and health hazards to patients, no means to care for patients without the basement services, and no way to bring patients in or take them out. Patients would be taken to Salem General Hospital located on Center St. near the State Hospital. Ambulances from the State Hospital, Red Cross and Willamette Ambulance Service were called in to help, as well as military vehicles and private station wagons. The vehicles were brought down Oak St. as close to the hospital as possible while remaining on dry ground. Within a span of two hours all 121 patients were evacuated through hip-deep water by National Guardsmen, doctors, firemen, Memorial and State Hospital personnel and others. About 80 patients were taken to Salem General Hospital but only 66 were admitted, the rest were discharged.

Staff Sergeant Larry Penrod carries newborn baby Garcia along with bottles, records and medication to safety during the evacuation of Salem Memorial Hospital December 23, 1964.

Staff Sergeant Larry Penrod carries newborn baby Garcia along with bottles, records and medication to safety during the evacuation of Salem Memorial Hospital December 23, 1964. WHC 1998.010.0050

National Guardsmen resembled proud fathers as they carried 9 newborn babies in their arms to emergency vehicles, including two infants born three hours prior to the evacuation. One premature baby was removed in an incubator. Their mothers were carried out on stretchers. “Our little babies all went out in red socks,” said Mrs. Fae Lefor, supervisor of nursing who assisted in heading the evacuation. “And I heard only one of them cry,” added another hospital employee. Staff Sergeant Larry A. Penrod of Troop C, 1st Squadron, 82nd Cavalry division of the National Guard was one of the “proud fathers” as seen in the accompanying photo. A 23-year-old father himself, he is pictured carrying two-day-old baby girl Garcia in his arms along with bottles, records, and medication. When interviewed in later years, he said he “was eager to do anything that could help” and that it “was a natural high to help somebody out who was in need. It was fun – in a strange sort of way.” Mrs. Vicki Sanders got to hold her 12-hour-old daughter Yvette for the first time while she sat on a makeshift plank bench in the rear of a National Guard truck. Vicki and her baby were carried separately through the hip-deep water to the truck, which delivered them to the home of Vicki’s mother. Only the day before, at 7:31 p.m. Vicki had given birth to Yvette. She later recalled that Pringle Creek was running across the street on Dec. 22nd, the day she went into the hospital. “I didn’t know much about the flood going on outside,” Vicky said. “I was having my own painful experience.” She said the National Guard troops and others who helped in the evacuation were “extremely well organized, but frantic. There wasn’t much time for TLC like teaching me how to take care of a baby.” Back at the hospital, Bob. L. Brooks, the hospital pharmacy operator, remained to shuttle drugs to Salem General Hospital when needed. Hospital officials then began a systematic check of the building, setting up priorities for removal of records and other equipment in case the waters continued to rise. Remaining on duty at the switchboard in the darkened hospital were Dottie Duval and Lou Davis. Many persons called the hospital after the evacuation for information and admittance. The telephone attendants had a difficult time convincing some that the hospital was closed and evacuated. Three days later on Saturday, December 26, 1964, a flood of governmental and private agencies, along with many volunteers, turned Salem Memorial Hospital into a beehive of activity in an attempt to get the flood-closed hospital back into operation. The hospital’s basement was pumped free of water and Chemawa Indian students manned shovels and brooms to clean up debris and mud. The State Prison and Correctional Institution rewired damaged motors and other electrical equipment. Pumps, fire trucks, bulldozers, and graders were pressed into service. By Monday afternoon the hospital was back in operation, though laundry and food service had been contracted to outside firms. Many of the patients evacuated remained at Salem General Hospital until their recovery. The only patients expected back were those under long recuperation orders. The Christmas Flood of 1964 was inarguably the largest flood to occur since major dam construction on the upper Willamette River and now, 50 years later it is still referred to as the “flood by which all other state disasters were measured.” It brought out the bravest and best in our community.

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Farley E. Mogan – The Oregon State Policeman and the Sea Lion

This article was written for the Statesman Journal and published November 2014. It is reproduced here for reference purposes.

Unidentified Oregon State Policeman and Sea Lion.  Photo credit: Oregon State Police

Unidentified Oregon State Policeman and Sea Lion.

The call came over the radio to state police patrolman Farley Mogan shortly after sunrise Feb. 25, 1936. A sea lion had been found lumbering clumsily across rain-soaked grain fields two miles north of Aurora, a mile and a half from the Pudding River. She’d flattened three fences before finally coming to rest on the Erickson ranch – wounded and belligerent. Officer Mogan was first on the scene followed shortly after by Jim Evans, a telephone company “trouble shooter” out of Aurora. Together the men led the angry animal a quarter of a mile to the Aurora-Wilsonville road over the Marion county line. The procedure was simplicity itself. Alternately offering themselves as objects for assault, they teased the short-tempered sea lion into a series of charges that brought her, at length, to the fence beside the highway. They were tired, and so was the animal, when the chase ended.

Word of the spectacle spread like prairie fire through surrounding towns and school principals sent more than 25 bus loads of students to the pasture to see the sea lion. Later estimates by the state police reported 5000 people during the three hour period in which the large animal was roped and loaded. No spectators were allowed past the shoulder of the road into the pasture because of the imminent danger of a charge.

Shortly after 10 A.M. F.O. Haldeman, state game department representative, and Sergeant Everett Meads of the state police department arrived with a big United States geodetic survey truck. Ropes and tackle were arranged while the exhausted animal lay with folded flippers on the wet ground. When the noose first settled on her heavy shoulders the sea lion gave a rumbling, coughing roar and charged at her tormentors. The six men on each of the two lead ropes managed to stop her even though they were dragged several feet each time. More ropes were applied and for perhaps a dozen feet she was in turn driven and goaded towards the truck.

With a bellow, she changed her mind. Whiskered muzzle pointed skyward, heavy shoulders humped, she surged free of the tackle and the ropes slid off her body and charged the crowd of spectators. Farley Mogan of the state police and patrolman Mayfield of the Oregon City police department barely missed a mauling as they distracted her from the crowd and offered themselves as targets. The second attempt with rope and tackle proved successful. She was securely trussed and her nine foot body hauled toward the truck. Rumbling, threatening and lashing out with her “terribly fanged jaws” she protested every inch of the way, but the officers succeeded.

The driver of the truck was given instructions to stop at every sizeable city on the way to Lincoln City to allow spectators to see the strange captive and to hose down the big animal with service station hoses. She was liberated shortly after 6 p.m. on the beach at Nelscott, only a short distance from the rookeries.

This would not be the first time in the history of the Oregon State Police that the troopers found themselves on animal duty, unusual though it may be. At the end of the roaring 20’s, statewide law enforcement in Oregon was fragmented with separate agencies enforcing fish, game, forestry, criminal, traffic, arson, and prohibition laws. In addition to these units with their varying methods, training and administration, were the town and county sheriffs or constables and city police departments all working their separate jurisdictions. Governor Julius Meier convinced the 1931 Legislature it should follow the lead of heavily populated Eastern States and form a State Police Department. There were 112 original members of the organization including Farley Edward Mogan.

Born October 18, 1908 in Baker City, Oregon, Farley was the only child of Frank William Mogan (1884-1942) and Lula Mary Farley (1890-1961). He attended grammar school in Ontario, Oregon up to the sixth grade when his family moved to Portland. During his sophomore year in high school the family moved briefly to Salem for a half year and then returned to Portland where he graduated from Grant High School. At 16 years old he attended his first Citizens’ Military Training Camp at Vancouver barracks. Two years later he had risen to be commander of the I company of the C.M.T.C. and despite the fact that he was only 21 years old, received a commission as second lieutenant in the regular army reserve. Just a few years later he would be selected as “the ideal type for a state policeman” for his sharp-shooting, motorcycle skills, work ethic and assigned to the night patrol on the highways between Aurora and Salem until the outbreak of war on the European front.

He was placed on leave when called to serve in World War II on the European front up in 1942 and appointed to serve on General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s staff as the Chief of the Public Safety Section, Governmental Affairs and later the Chief of the Investigation Section for Counter Intelligence in the Western Defense Command North Sector. His wife Nell Young (1913-1996) joined him in Frankfurt, Germany at the end of the war and their daughter Martha Nell was born April 16, 1947. The family returned home to Salem, Oregon that same year.

Officer Mogan resumed his position at the Oregon State Police also serving as Chief of the Public Safety Branch of the 364th Civil Affairs Military Government Unit in Portland. He continued to rise in the ranks of both the State Police and Army Reserve Military Intelligence Service until 1967 when he was placed on leave to the governor’s office and named head of Oregon’s Civil Defense for two years. In 1969 he was appointed the U.S. Marshal for Oregon, an office in which he served until his death in 1972. He is buried in Willamette National Cemetery.

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1965 Veterans Day Parade – Salem

The rumble of National Guard tanks mixed with bands and marching feet Thursday as Salem observed Veterans Day with its biggest parade in many years.  Rain washed out some parade entries but the mile-long parade got a good reception as it wound through the downtown business district.  A weapons display, luncheon and dance were also held.

The rumble of National Guard tanks mixed with bands and marching feet Thursday as Salem observed Veterans Day with its biggest parade in many years. Rain washed out some parade entries but the mile-long parade got a good reception as it wound through the downtown business district. A weapons display, luncheon and dance were also held.

reprinted from Oregon Statesman, Friday November 12, 1965

Names of Wars Past, Present Linked by Tributes at Salem

Salem turned out in the rain Thursday to pay homage to veterans of American battles in scattered and strange sounding places, like Chateau-Thierry, Iwo Jima, Pusan and Plei Me.

Three wreaths placed at the foot of a doughboy statue inscribed “Greater Love Hath No Man…” symbolized the city’s respect for the dead of World War I.

Then through town rolled a parade of white-haired veterans in care, fresh, eager youngsters of the new generation, uniformed men, heavy tanks and other symbols of U.S. military strength.

Although the rain kept some scheduled participants home, the Salem parade was one of the biggest in years. Two bands shrugged off the rainfall to provide lively music for marchers. They were the Oregon College of Education band and the Chemawa Indian School pep band. Chemawa also provided colorfully dressed marchers.

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Elvira Johnson Perkins – the Harp of the Willows

This article was written for the Statesman Journal and published October 2014.   It is reproduced here for reference purposes.

Wascopam Mission - The Dalles, Oregon

Wascopam Mission – The Dalles, Oregon

“Hark! ‘tis the sound of wailing

Comes on the evening breeze,

Forth from an Indian village lone,

By yon dark forest trees.”

In 1844 at the Methodist mission outpost called Wascopam an incident occurred that demonstrated the extraordinary perseverance of Methodist missionary Elvira Johnson Perkins. The young son of a local Native American leader was struck down by a fatal disease. The grief-stricken father insisted that the boy’s friend and inseparable companion, another Native American child captured in a raid on a neighboring tribe, be buried with him so that he would not be alone on his journey to the spirit world. Both boys were taken to the tribe’s burial tomb located on a long rock in the center of the Columbia River. The living companion was tied as closely as possible to his dead companion and sealed within the tomb.

Elvira and her husband Reverend Henry Perkins received news of the situation late at night and had no choice but to wait until daylight before attempting the boy’s rescue.

“In yonder lowly chamber,

While all are slumbering round,

At the silent hour of midnight,

A female form is found

Before her father kneeling

In fervent, earnest prayer,

With as deep a tide of feeling

As human heart can bear.”

After a sleepless night, the missionary couple fought the river current for three miles, reaching the rock just after sunrise. Reverend Perkins forced open the tomb and the couple waited anxiously for some of the incredible stench of death to escape. Then they entered to search for the boy and found him unconscious and scarcely breathing. After being carried out into the fresh air the boy slowly began to regain his senses and when fully conscious he threw his arms around Mrs. Perkins and covered her with kisses. Her tears fell upon his brow as she held him in her arms, his head pressed against her cheek. They took him home and gave him the name Ransom after they had compensated the Native American leader for his loss.

“An angel went from heaven,

Entered his prison-door,

And words of peace and comfort

To his anguished spirit bore;

He loosed his galling fetters,

And the corpse that o’er him lay,

And told him that relief should come

As came the rising day.”

In her own poetic style, Elvira captured the events of the Native American boy’s rescue as well as other historic events experienced during her mission to the Oregon Territory. Elvira Johnson and her future husband Henry Kirke White Perkins were Methodist missionaries from the state of Maine. Both educated at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary in Kent’s Hill, Elvira was the first to answer the call of the Methodist Missionary Society for volunteers to join what became known as the First Reinforcement to the Oregon Mission. Traveling with missionary companion Anna Maria Pittman, the future Mrs. Jason Lee, both young ladies spent many evenings on deck singing the songs of Zion. This attracted the attention of their fellow-passengers and led one gentleman to remark to them that their voices were “enough to convert the heart of an Infidel.” The party traveled by way of Boston, South America and the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) before arriving in the Pacific Northwest in May 1837. Henry followed, arriving four months later in September.

Elvira’s job at the Willamette Mission was to teach between twenty and thirty Native American children in the log house which served as headquarters for the missionaries. The room was un-partitioned and her pupils were often distracted by the smells and sounds of cooking which took place on an open fireplace next to where they sat. Henry, no stranger to carpentry, quickly solved this problem by building the needed partition, creating a school room. It was a labor of love meant to direct Elvira’s thoughts toward the subject of marriage. It must have worked, along with countless other acts, for they were married November 21, 1837 at the Willamette Mission.

The following spring Reverend Jason Lee decided that the Perkins could be used most effectively to establish a new mission up the Columbia River near the present-day city of The Dalles, Oregon. It would be named Wascopam. This mission would prove invaluable in the coming years as an important stopover spot for travelers on the Oregon Trail, many of whom arrived needing rest, medical attention, food and supplies in order to continue their journey. This along with providing for the physical and spiritual needs of the Native Americans was a daunting task, but one at which the Perkins excelled for nearly six years.

By the fall of 1844, disillusioned with the Methodist Missionary Board’s decision to replace Jason Lee with Reverend George Gary and the cost-cutting decisions to close down schools and sell mission property, the Perkins decided to return to the more civilized life of their New England roots. They initially settled in Maine with extended family members while Reverend Perkins preached in local congregations. Three years later in 1848, when the life of a settled clergyman no longer suited Henry’s health nor inclination, the family moved to the Boston area. Dependent on wealthy benefactors, Reverend Perkins labored independently as a street preacher on the Boston Commons until his death in 1884. Elvira passed away in 1896, after which a group of friends published a collection of her poems in a book called “Harp of the Willows”. This book including the poem about the rescue of the Native American boy quoted above, can now be found on Google Books thanks to the work of Kira Kinney, former teen interpreter and volunteer of the Willamette Heritage Center.

view Elvira’s book “Harp of the Willows”

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Circus Parade Highlights from Salem History

This gallery contains 7 photos.

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Bishop Clothing and Woolen Mill Store

This article was written for the Statesman Journal and published September 2014.  It is reproduced here for reference purposes.

C.P. Bishop sitting in the $5 shoe display in his store.

C.P. Bishop sitting in the $5 shoe display in his store.

“Now is the time and here is the place for the Men and Boys to fit themselves out for the season.”

Salem in the early 1890s was a thriving community with high hopes for the future and enterprising men to make it a reality. On May 1, 1891 one such young man, Charles P. Bishop took over the Salem Woolen Mill store at 299 Commercial St. The energetic, ambitious son-in-law of Thomas Kay was already a founding director of the Kay Woolen Mills with a background in merchandising including previous work experience and ownership of stores in Brownsville, Crawfordsville, and McMinnville. When the opportunity presented itself to purchase the Salem Woolen Mill store from his father-in-law he did so, for $20,000.

C.P. Bishop family

C.P. Bishop family

Charles Pleasant Bishop was born September 23, 1854, in Contra Costa, California to the Reverend William and Elizabeth Jane Adams Bishop. By the age of 20 he was clerking in the store of Kirk & Hume in Brownsville, Oregon. Two years later he changed employment, accepting a position as clerk and salesman at the Brownsville Woolen Mills store. In 1874 Charles attended a July 4th celebration with Fannie Kay, the daughter of Thomas Kay, manager of the Brownsville Woolen Mill. He later recalled, “After going to the Fourth of July celebration I could no longer say I didn’t have a girl, for Fannie and I began keeping company.” They were married on October 8, 1876. It was the perfect marriage of textile manufacturing (Fannie) and merchandising (Charles). Fannie had grown up assisting her father at the mill and knew the business inside and out. In rather quick succession, three sons were born to the couple; Clarence M. Bishop in 1878, Royal Thomas Bishop in 1881, and Robert Chauncey Bishop in 1882.

The original Salem Woolen Mill Store purchased by Charles, or C.P. as he preferred to be called, was located at 299 Commercial St., between Court and State streets. It was a two-story structure measuring about 30 by 40 feet with a floor space of 22 by 60 feet. The store employed two clerks, H.S. Belle and William Woodsworth. The first few years were difficult following the Panic of 1893, but the economy improved following the turn of the century.   In November 1896 the first worsted cloth manufactured west of the Mississippi River came off the looms of the Kay Mill. A forty-yard bolt was placed on display and for sale in the Salem Woolen Mills store. Owner C.P. Bishop immediately cut off three and one-half yards of the blue serge and took it upstairs to the tailor shop to be measured for a suit. The rest was advertised as $25 a suit. In 1899, C.P. was elected mayor of Salem and would continue to serve until 1906, successfully juggling political office, the running of the Salem store including several expansions and a move in 1902 to larger quarters at 136-138 Commercial St. where the parking lot north of Spaghetti Warehouse restaurant is now located.

In the spring of April 1900, events began to take place that would shape the family business and future, beginning with the death of Fannie’s father, woolen mill owner Thomas Lister Kay. Despite the years Fannie had spent at her father’s side running the mill, her brother Thomas B. Kay was chosen and elected president and general manager. Shortly thereafter C. P. resigned as a director in the business, though he and Fannie continued to hold stock in the mill. The Bishop’s store continued to stock the products of the Kay mill, especially blankets which were always sold under the mill’s label. In addition to the Salem store, C.P. also owned the Salem Woolen Mills Store at 85 Third Street in Portland where C.T. Roberts, Bishop’s brother-in-law, was manager. Here, as in the capital city, the Kay fabrics and blankets were stocked and tailoring departments were maintained.

In 1908, the Bishop family took a huge leap of faith and purchased the defunct Pendleton Woolen Mill in Eastern Oregon. A business opportunity for enterprising young sons, a guaranteed future supply of woolen goods for their rapidly growing retail outlets, and the chance to build a family legacy. Two sons, Charles and Roy, were sent to oversee the project. Chauncey, the third son remained to help his father run the Salem store. The 1920-1930s were an era of growth for the family business despite the Great Depression. The Salem store grew to employ 18 full-time employees. The store moved again, this time to the Eckerlen Building at 145 Liberty St. At 8,000 square feet with two floors, this was nearly ten times the size of the original store. The name was changed to Bishop Clothing and Woolen Mill Store and the business, originally operated as a sole proprietorship, was incorporated in 1924 and sold to the Bishop sons and R.H. Cooley, longtime employee and manager.

For many decades Bishop Clothing was recognized as one of the West’s finest stores for men as C.P. Bishop continued to pour his energy and ambition into the business and established policies that guided its management. He saw it through difficult years and onto a firm footing that would last into the early 1980s when the store was closed.

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